10.07.2019 | Redaktor

Mundek Strauber and Cyla Krauter, testimony by Janina Kaczmarowska, recorded in Brzesko in May 2016

“I had such a friend at school, Cyla Krauter. She was so beautiful, with long light curly hair. She came from a very orthodox house, even the housekeeper was Jewish. Her father had a bookstore and a printing house. I often visited them at home. I remember it was Saturday evening – after the Sabbath, it happened before the war. A table,  challah, 9-arm candlestick, old Krauter stands in front of the table in hisTalit (prayer shawl). (I think it happened during Hanukkah, festival of lights, that’s why there was a hanukkiah on the table – a 9-arm candlestick. A.B.)

– Sorry to disturb you. I see, you are praying.

– No. But even if I prayed, we can pray together, we have one decalogue. Do you remember?

I recited all 10 commandments.

– And as a Jew, am I your neighbor?

– Of course. That’s how I was taught at home – we have one God.

– For your mother, father – I know I’m a neighbor. And for your brother?

Around that time my brother Leopold  joined this nationalistic organization, All-Polish Youth. Once in school, several boys were called to the headmaster, and from his office – to the city mayor. He told them: “Jews pay taxes the same way we do, they cannot be discriminated. (The boys were supposed to put up posters “Don’t buy from a Jew.”) If you still want to belong to this organization, I’ll tell the headmaster, you’ll be expelled and won’t be able to get to any school. “

All the boys promised they would back off. My brother kept his promise. Later he worked in Radziwiłłów on the Polish-Ukrainian border. He had a Jewish friend who saved my brother, He learned that the NKVD was to take Poles to Siberia and told my brother about it. Poldek managed to escape and survive Soviet occupation.

And Cyla did not survive the war. She had a fiancée, Mundek Strauber. They were such a beautiful couple. Mundek’s mother converted to Catholicism, so when Cyla fell in love with him, her parents refused to agree to their wedding. It was only after the death of Cyla’s mother in 1938 that they could get married. Mundek was so handsome and clever. He taught us maths while we were still at high school. He later became a lawyer. And Cyła has always been so elegant. Her older sister lived with her husband in Vienna, she often sent Cyla different clothes. I remember how she walked through Brzesko in such a black fur coat. And the hat was also black.

Both of them were shot.  At happened in Brzesko, not far from Uszwica river. I don’t remember, whether it was in 1940 or 1941. They went somewhere together. They saw Germans and started running away. Mundek was killed immediately, but Cyla didn’t see it, she kept running. She was hit about 50 m away, right by the river. I was walking when a  friend called me: “Have you seen Cyla?” I ran to Uszwica and heard such a strange sound. Right away I saw my Cyla. The bullet hit her throat. When she tried to breathe, pink bubbles came out of that hole in her throat. It was so scary.

I ran to her brother-in-law, he brought people, took Cyla to the Jewish hospital, it was in the buildiong of the synagogue at Berka  Jóselewicza street. She lived for several more days. When I came to her, she was still conscious, she kept asking me about Mundek. And I lied to her. I said Mundek was waiting for her. She just needs to recover as soon as possible. I held her hand when she died.

During the funeral, I met her friend – a brightly dressed Jewish woman. She was in a beige jacket, bright skirt. I was surprised, it is inappropriate clothing for such an occasion. But she replied: “We are happy that Cyla died in such a way – in bed, surrounded by her family. Who knows what will happen to us”

They were buried together, not far from the cemetery gate, on the left next to the wall. There was only such an simple concrete slab, no monument on the grave. Several years later I tried to find their grave, but everything was so overgrown with grass that I found nothing. Maybe you can do it?

Only Mundek’s sister Lonka survived the war. She  converted to Catholicism, and during the war she was hiding in the presbytery of priest Opoka in Wierzchosławice.

That time in the hospital, when I was visiting Cyla, an old Jewish woman called me, she was yellow as a lemon. She asked me if I was Jewish. I said no, I’m Polish, I just came to visit my friend. She was surprised – “I haven’t seen Poles in this hospital yet”. And then she took my hand and blessed me: “You will live long.” She was right, I’m still alive. Already 102 years. Sometimes I recall that blessing. “


In 2017, with the help of Mr. Alexander Schwarz from the Rabbinical Commission for Jewish Cemeteries, we located the grave of Mundek and Cyla Strauber. A wooden matzeva with a simple plaque was put there. I could also learn some basic facts about that couple.

Ciźa (Cyla) Krauter was born in Brzesko on March 14, 1913; she was named after her  great-grandmother from the side of grandmother Scheindel Krauter nee Roselblut. Cyla’s mother, Lea Krauter nee Muller, died in Brzesko on June 30, 1939 (and not in 1938, as Mrs Kaczmarowska remembered); she had diabetes.

Chaim Jakub (Mundek) Strauber was born on November 3, 1908 in Dolin (now in Ukraine, before the war in Stanisławów Voivodship), he was the son of Israel Ber Strauber and Estera nee Bruck.

On June 8, 1941, Cyla and Mundek got married in Brzesko in the presence of rabbi Chaim Teitelbaum.  I do not think, they had any special celebration – Brzesko ghetto had noe been closed  in 1941, but it was already really difficult. Most likely they were murdered several months after their marriage. At least before God, they were already husband and wife.

And Mrs Kaczmarowska, having been blessed by that old Jewish woman, lived till 103 and a half. Just a few days before her death, we talked, I showed her photos of the new monument on the mass grave of Bresko Jews and the matzeva of Mundek and Cyla. We could commemorate these places solely due to Mrz Kaczmarowska’s testimonies. She was so happy.

May their memory be an eternal blessing.

Anna Brzyska, July 2019

Janina Kaczmarowska (1914-2017), autumn 2016
School certificate of Chaim (Mundek) Strauber, 8th grade student, Brzesko, school year 1926/27
School certificate of Ciza (Cyla) Krauter,  4th grade student, Brzesko, school year 1929/30
The only known photo  of Mundek Strauber from “Chronicles of  Brzesko” by Burlikowski. Cyla’s photos could not be found
According to Mrs. Kaczmarowska’s testimony, that’s where Jewish hospital was located during the war. Hasidic synagogue at Berka Joselewicza street. Photo taken by Schaje Weiss in 1929. © Charles Weiss Jr
Grave of Mundek and Cyla at the Jewish cemetery in Brzesko.


In October 2023 we managed to get in touch with the nephew of Cyla Krauter, Mr Jacob Brauner. His mother Sara Krauter used to live in Vienna before  the war. She married Elias Brauner and emigrated to Palestine in 1937. Mr Brauner provided the photo of Brauner sisters.

Brauner sisters, from the left: Cyla, Sara, Dobe. Based on Mr Brauner’s testimony, Dobe lived in Brzesko and was also murdered in the Holocaust. Photo from the family archive of Jacob Brauner.